Politics of immigration in the EU. An analysis of the Mediterranean case

Author: Campostrini Giovanni

One of the most crucial events which afflicted EU stability in the last years has been the migration crisis. From 2013, Southern European States experienced thousands of new arrivals, coming mainly by sea from Libyan and Turkish coasts. This paper analyzes the EU laws and regulations circa the process of asylum application, to better understand the main concerns and critics regarding the welcoming system in Europe. Moreover, migration crisis’ main data are analyzed to show the tragedy that overturn European public opinion. 

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A Pareceria Azul China-Portugal: Uma Perspectiva Relacional

Author: Yi Sun

Partindo do reconhecimento da relevância do mar na agenda económica e política da China e da União Europeia, e em particular no caso português, o trabalho tem como objetivo principal avaliar o recente surgimento da Parceria Azul entre Portugal e a China, baseando no conceito de “relational power” de RI. O trabalho responderá a três perguntas de partidas: 1) Porque é que surgiu a primeira Parceria Azul China-Portugal no contexto sino-europeu? 2) Como irá funcionar? 3) Quais são as suas perspectivas? Para tal, o trabalho é divido em três partes. A primeira parte irá explorar o raciocínio da parceria baseando na teoria relacional confucionista de RI para encontrar um enquadramento analítico da Parceria, baseando de que, se desenvolverá uma análise da parceria azul China-Portugal na segunda parte. A terceira irá identificar as principais dimensões da parceria assim como as suas perspectivas. O trabalho argumenta que a Parceria Azul, enquanto instrumento diplomático, tem um raciocínio diferente que as parcerias ocidentais convencionais, pois tem um carácter relacional em primeiro lugar. Neste sentido, a sua origem vem das relações, o seu potencial partem das relações.

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Europe's Commitments to marine renwable energy. Ocean and Offshore wind

Author: Marco André Valente Santos 

This working paper aims to address the issue of Marine Energy, namely the importance of harnessing European marine resources for the energy sector and its socio-economic implications. Nevertheless, in coherence with the scope of the study, which derives from a curricular unit where a multidisciplinary nature of students predominates, some of the more fundamental technical concepts will be introduced in order to allow a better contextualization of the renewable energy theme. The paper is structured in 5 chapters and its logical sequence seeks to facilitate the understanding of the document, starting by offering, in the first chapter, a justification for the writing of the document and introduce a general framework to the theme.  The Blue Economy theme is introduced in the follow-up to the previous chapter and the need for European Maritime Policies to address maritime issues in an integrated way is supported. In the following chapter, a brief description of the state of the art of the different marine energy production technologies is given, followed by an exhibition of some Trends and Statistics on investments in these technologies in Europe.  The Opportunities and Challenges of the Marine Energy Sector are also presented, with the objective of making known, in addition to the projects that are being developed, the difficulties that remain in the application of innovations. Finally, in the chapter of the Conclusions, a summary of the work is made from a perspective of the economic potential of the Marine Energy sector in Europe. 

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Across the Sea. The Mediterranean, Migration and EU-Policy

Author: Cai Schultz

Migration into the European Union (EU) and its predecessors has existed for a long period of time. Since the beginning of the immense refugee and migration movements in 2015, caused by the war in Syria however, the numbers of people trying to immigrate increased massively and rapidly. The effects of the complex situation still mean major challenges for the people and the member states of the EU. Until today the latter did not find a comprehensive solution in managing these challenges. As a consequence, populist right wing parties all over Europe took advantage of the inability to reach a consensus, providing easy answers for difficult questions and eventually gained huge shares of voter turnout (Germany, France) and even took over governments (Italy, Poland, Hungary, Austria, Belgium). This paper examines the EUs and Germanys Mediterranean policy considering migration. Therefore, the essay starts with a history of Mediterranean migration and will continue to illustrate the status quo. The main part of the paper will be contributed to the different initiatives and agreements the EU and Germany has started to tackle illegal immigration. Finally, the measures will be evaluated by their effectiveness.

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The EU – Africa fisheries agreements: Good governance?

Author: Ana Clara Ribeiro Calvário

In 2007, the EU established the IMP, that pursues a coherent approach to the maritime issues. The IMP goal was to coordinate different policies, comprehending topics that crosscut various areas of study. The Blue Growth strategy has one main objective: to give long term support to the marine and maritime sectors, through a holistic and comprehensive approach. The livelihood within the EU is inherently connected to the seas and oceans. They constitute a cornerstone of the European economy, namely throughout the areas of fisheries, tourism, energy, transport and many others. The competitiveness of these areas is dependent on the sustainable use of resources. Therefore, the governance of oceans and seas constitutes a challenge faced on a global level, including by the EU. Moreover, the saturation of coastal areas, climate change and population growth constitute factors that aggravate the defying nature of this topic. Specifically, the fisheries are extremely important to the maintenance of food supply to the EU population. However, the EU waters are not enough, being currently overexploited. Baring this in mind, my analysis will focus on a specific aspect of the external dimension of the EU-CFP: the ‘Sustainable Fisheries Partnership Agreements’, an essential tool to the EU to preserve its fisheries industries, its oceans and seas sustainability and its population food security.

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Baltic Sea Region vs. Dutch Maritime Cluster. A comparison

Author: Nina Antonia Marie Braun

The European Union stands for strong cohesion within Europe. It promotes politics, economics, rights and everlasting progress in all areas. From this position, a pilot project was developed in 2009 to improve the situation in the maritime regions and promote economic efficiency in this sector. This is the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea Region. The Baltic Sea Region is a maritime macro-regional cluster. The cluster concept is often used to analyse the economic specialisation of a country. A cluster is a geographically concentrated set of firms related to a common product or process. This set of firms is homogenous: some firms play a more significant role in the development of the cluster than others. Both aspects, the set of firms acting in a cluster as well as the efficiency of the Baltic Sea Strategy are the centre of the following essay. Therefore, a comparison between the Baltic Sea Region and the Dutch Maritime Cluster will be done. The Baltic Sea Region is selected due to its pilot role. The Dutch Maritime Cluster is selected due to its large network of firms and the specialisation on leader firms and leader firm’s behaviour. The following question is the guideline for the essay, trying to be answered in the end: What are similarities and differences between the two maritime clusters of the Baltic Sea Region and the Dutch maritime cluster? The essay is split into three main content chapters. Chapter 2 is to give a definition of clusters and related terms that are important for the work. Besides that, the two cluster regions will be presented and analysed. Chapter 3 contains two SWOT-Analysis of both, the Dutch Maritime Cluster and the Baltic Sea Region in order to compare them. Finally, the transferability of the EU Strategy for the Baltic Sea region will be examined in chapter 4 as well as a conclusion will be drawn, and an outlook will be given.

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The Italian maritime cluster: the role of the sea in the national economy and its protection

Author: Penelope Celario

In the first part of this paper I will try to describe the great change in which the sea has been the protagonist since the 1950’s. In particular, the fact that the sea has undergone a territorialization process will be highlighted in this work. New plants for offshore mariculture were born and larger and more equipped areas for aquaculture were implemented; fishing started to take on industrial dimensions thanks to the development of shipbuilding, scientific explorations and new fish conservation techniques. The search for hydrocarbons and the birth of new offshore structures for mineralogical research have led the sea to be considered an important resource to be exploited as a source of wealth.

The second part of this work will focus on Italy; in particular on the economic value of the sea and on the main characteristics of the Italian maritime cluster. After an excursus on the evolution of the Italian maritime system in the second half of the 21st century, the current value of the sea for the Italian nation-system will be analyzed. The difficulties and weaknesses of the Italian maritime cluster will also be highlighted, but also its strength and its important impact on employment.

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